Compared with Europe, whose viticulture dates back to Roman times, Australia's wine heritage is only 200 years old. And yet, despite such a short time, the domestic wine industry has become known worldwide for its quality, taste, and depth and invariably ranks among the top ten wine countries in the world.
Australian winery records began with the introduction of the main fleet in Sydney Harbor. The first vines came to Australia in 1788 with Captain Philip onboard one of the ships of the First Fleet. These vines were first planted at Farm Cove, in what is now the Sydney Botanical Garden. Unfortunately, the grapevine no longer took root as intended and was quickly transplanted to a new site in Parramatta. In 1791, Governor Philip reported that he had merged a 3-Acre vineyard in Parramatta and that a settler named Schaffer had planted an additional 1-Acre of vines. In the following years, many more attempts were made to establish grape and wine corporations in various parts of the colony. Notable among them are the pioneering efforts of Captain
John Macarthur, who obtained land thirty miles from Sydney and named it Camden Park. The resource has taken a critical stance in improving all types of commodity industries in Australia and is particularly well known as a Merino sheep breeding site. Camden Park took a prominent place in the emerging vineyard, loading and distributing grape seedlings throughout New South Wales and the Barossa Valley. By 1853, about 33 grape varieties were sold in Camden Park.
An English pioneer farmer named Gregory Blaxland moved to Sydney with his family in 1806, is considered one of the first settlers to plant grapes to produce wine. Upon arriving in, the colony he had purchased from D'Arcy Hue was worth 450 acres of Brush Farm, near Eastwood today, and he planted vines that he had brought from the Cape of Good Hope on his land. flight to Australia. He survived a serious grapevine disease, particularly disease, which destroyed leaves and young shoots. Therefore, he experimented with as many grape varieties as possible to find that would be most resistant to this decline, possibly a disease is known as "black spot" or "anthracnose". Later he achieved some success with what he called burgundy, and his vineyard, founded between 1816-1818, was established mainly on these grapes.
In response to the awarding of the medal by the Society for the Advancement of Fine Arts Manufactures and Commerce, usually known as the Royal Society of Arts, or simply, Society of Arts, for marketable wine from New South Wales in bulk 13 ties at least twenty gallons he sent a quarter of a pipe of red wine fortified with brandy to London in 1822 to facilitate travel.
In 1823 he was awarded the Silver Medal by the Society, and in 1828 he was awarded the Society's Gold Medal for presenting further greater samples, which withinside the Society's opinion they were clearly better than the 1823 samples and completely devoid of the earthy taste that unfortunately characterizes most Cape Town wines, While in England, he sent two copies of a work published in New South Wales on viticulture to be sent by the Society's Library.
Blaxland also practiced brandy enrichment to improve and stabilize low-quality wine however, he was dissatisfied with the heavyweight of the brandy and asked the governor to remove it. In a shipment of 1825, Earl Bathurst agreed to a duty exemption for brandy used in the production of wine intended for export, provided proof that the wine was actually exported. Gregory Blaxland has done a little more to develop viticulture. He disappeared from public life in the 1830s, and his name no longer appears in connection with the production of wine. Nevertheless, his achievements were significant. He showed that in New South Wales, you can produce strong drinking wine and experiment until you find suitable disease-resistant vines. His overseas efforts drew British attention to the possibilities of the colonial wine industry and did not induce 14 settlers to experiment with a product that was properly made to be less perishable than many other agricultural products and more suitable for consumption export.
1825 was a key year for Australian viticulture when James Busby, the famous horticulturist, turned his attention to wine and the large-scale grape growing process. In 1831, Busby traveled to Europe in search of the best grape varieties to grow in Australia, collecting some 650 varieties from all over Europe that he thought would have the best chance of thriving in Australia. Unfortunately, only 362 grape seedlings survived during the trip to Australia. They were planted in Sydney's historic botanical gardens and flourished there under the watchful eye of Busby and his team. Several collections of seedlings were taken from this batch of grapes and planted in plots of land in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, including the Hunter Valley, which is now one of Australia's richest wine regions.
Many of Australia's oldest vines are entrenched in James Busby's early collections, and thanks to Australia's low phylloxera (grapevine-eating lice), many of these old vines remain original and unvaccinated - a fact that some experts attribute to Australia as a producer of intense wines and aromatic with good maturation potential. Followed by Busby's success in his mission to bring Australian wine to the map, the Hunter Valley has become the country's main commercial wine region and the Windham Estate has become Australia's largest winery. During the 1840s, wine production began to increase in many parts of southern Australia. Italian immigrants grew the first Riverina vineyards near the Margaret River, while in Victoria and New South Wales, Swiss and German settlers established several large vineyards, especially around the Clare and Barossa valleys. Australia began exporting wine to the UK, with the first officially registered at 1,384 gallons. The following year, several Australian wines entered the Royal Society of Arts, including a variety from the Gregory Blackland Vineyard, which later won a silver medal, becoming the first award-winning wine produced in Australia.
After booming in the 1840s and 1850s, the Australian wine industry suffered from the gold rush as workers left vineyards in search of gold in Eastern Australia and Tasmania, the industry began to regain its position again in the early 1900s, until the outbreak of World War I, which again left the country's vineyards without the necessary manpower.
After the end of World War II, a huge influx of immigrants came to Australia, bringing with them new skills and methods of wine production. With the advent of these new viticulture methods, tastes have changed and people have started looking for new, more refined varieties. Consumption skyrocketed, reviving Australia's love of the grapevine. The Australian wine industry has flourished from the 1950s to the present day. Currently, the country produces and exports millions of gallons of wine annually, there are thousands of large vineyards and small independent vineyards, each producing a different wine that has become synonymous with Australian viticulture. Less an enterprise and more a lifestyle, Australia's wine history isn't a lot of an enterprise as a manner of life, and this may interest anyone who lives or visits this wonderful, magnificent country.
Australia entered export markets in the 1980s and has been offering the world live fruit wines of exceptional value ever since. Quickly into the late 90s and early 2000s, concentrated samples of Shiraz, Grenache, and red blends dominated Australian wine history. In between these two extremes lies the ubiquitous variety of Australia's premium and regional offerings.
Over 100 varieties of wines together with Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Riesling, Pinot Noir, Muscat, and Shiraz are produced in Australia. Several uncommon Mediterranean types have additionally commenced blooming in Australian vineyards, together with Vermentino, Barbera, Fiano, and Nero d'Avola. Australian wines can now be enjoyed all over the world, and the UK imports more wine from Australia than from France.
In today date, the production rate of Australia is only 4 percent of the world's wine but is the fourth largest exporter after the traditional wine giants Italy, France, and Spain. December 2010, Australia exported 781 million liters of wine, the vineyard area was just under 160,000 hectares, and more than 2,000 growers used 1.6 million tonnes of grapes to produce their wine.
From cozy family lounges to stately architecturally designed structures that stand out among the vineyards, Australia offers a wide range of exceptional vineyards to suit all tastes, varieties of grapes are planted in Australia, the most important of which are:
A recent interest in other Mediterranean varieties has seen small but increased plantings of: