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Little information about Oenology Viticulture and Wine

Updated: Sep 28, 2021

Wine has been a famous drink of mankind for hundreds of years. Our herbal love for this drink is because of its wonderful taste, dietary houses, and, ultimately however now no longer least, its psychotropic (intoxicating) effect.

Of all alcoholic beverages, none has had such an effect on society. The exchange in wine among cultures has opened channels for the unfold of non-secular and philosophical thoughts throughout Europe. Wine is regularly referred to withinside the Bible, from Noah and his vine to Jesus as arguably the satisfactory winemaker today. Wine continues to be used withinside the Catholic Church alternatively for the blood of Christ, which testifies to the important thing position that this drink performed withinside the past.

Centuries ago, the wine enterprise turned into additionally the hallmark of a forward-searching country, as simplest superior societies may want to aid a thriving and aggressive wine enterprise. It is regularly stated that Western society constructed its foundations on wine.


No one can be sure of this, but there is an ancient Persian fairy tale in which a woman is recognized as the discoverer of wine. According to the fairy tale, she was a princess who lost favor with the king. The shame was so unbearable that she ate a few table grapes that had gone broke in a jar in an attempt to commit suicide

Her suicide did not go as planned, instead of falling into eternal sleep, she felt dizzy, intoxicated, and then passed out. When she awoke, she found that all the hardships of her life seemed to have disappeared. She was still eating spoiled grapes, and her mood changed so much that she regained favor with the king.

While it is a nice story, the accidental discovery of wine has likely happened several times in different regions, inventing wine certainly comes with pure, stupid happiness.

The earliest signs of the wine we all know and love date back to sixty million-year-old fossils, meaning our prehuman ancestors may have realized that older grapes would have been more desirable. We can see it today with our animal friends, who prefer more ripe fruits.

The first remains of wine were discovered at Hajji Firuz Tepe in the northern Zagros Mountains in Iran. The wine dates from the Neolithic (85004000 BC). Carbon dating confirmed that the wine was produced sometime between 54005000 BC. C.

Although earlier wines have been found, it is believed that the art of winemaking began shortly after 6000 BC. C. It started. This is believed to be the date of one of humanity's most momentous creations, as the people of these regions managed to establish permanent settlements through the domestication of animals and plants.

This changed into a far extra-strong dwelling scenario than the nomadic manner of existence that maximum human beings exercise nowadays. This balance allowed human beings to test with their cooking and their liquids. Some of our favorite dishes and liquids that we nonetheless revel in nowadays had been evolved all through this time, along with beer and, of course, wine.

This changed into a far extra-strong dwelling scenario than the nomadic manner of existence that maximum human beings exercise nowadays. This balance allowed human beings to test with their cooking and their liquids. Some of our favorite dishes and liquids that we nonetheless revel in nowadays had been evolved all through this time, along with beer and, of course, wine.

Viticulture has been around for millennia, and modern-day winemakers nonetheless use most of the identical strategies and methods as their historic counterparts. Winemakers are the women and men who look at grape and grape production. The technological know-how of viticulture has grown with the development of technological know-how and agriculture, however, it nonetheless calls for an appreciation of early winemaking strategies, a number of that are extra than 7,000 years old.

Wine grapes are special from desk grapes because all of us realize that wine is an alcoholic beverage crafted from the

fermented juice of grapes,

hypothetically any fruit may be used for wine. The artwork of winemaking is referred to as VINEYARD and the look at wines is referred to as ENOLOGY.

Viticulture is a scientific study of grapes, most often with an emphasis on growth and production. When grapes are used specifically to make wine, grape testing can also be called viticulture. Both viticulture and viticulture refer to horticulture. Viticulture as a science and profession has existed since people produce and drink wine. The most popular grape variety, Vitis vinifera, has been cultivated and fermented by humans since at least the Neolithic Age. Wine production was extremely important in the ancient world. The Greek historian Thucydides noted that the development of civilization in the Mediterranean coincided with the cultivation of grapes.

The Romans developed the use of stakes to grow grapes instead of using trees. This minimized the danger of climbing trees that was an essential part of the wine for growers to trim the leaves to let in sunlight. As the empire grew, viticulture also grew. The Romans shared their grape growing methods throughout Western Europe, teaching Spanish, German, and French how to be winemakers.

During the Middle Ages, Catholic monks made great strides in viticulture. It was the first time that grape varieties were tested to determine which varieties are best suited to a particular geographical area. Medieval viticulture also developed the concept of terroir and the idea that types of wines from the same region have similar natures and similarities.

Most vineyards and winemakers may be determined among the thirtieth and fiftieth parallel in every hemisphere. In those latitudes, slight temperatures maintain the grapevines growing. Grape growers may be determined on each continent besides Antarctica, and wine is a multi-billion greenback enterprise annually. The important wine areas are:

France: The French are perhaps the most famous viticulturalists in the world. Iconic wines come from across France, from the red wines of Bordeaux to the sparkling white wine of the Champagne region.

Italy: The Italian peninsula has played host to viticulture since the days of the Roman empire. Italy is the world’s largest producer of wine and produces quality wine of many different varieties.

Spain: Spain has a rich winemaking history which stretches back centuries. Spanish viticulturists are known for producing full-bodied red wines, including Tempranillo.

Germany: German wine grapes are grown largely along the banks of the river Rhine. The Romans were the first to grow grape vines along the Rhine and the tradition continues to this day.

South Africa: South Africa has been producing wine since the mid 1600’s. The climate of South Africa is very similar to the mediterranean and is very hospitable to viticulture.

California: Viticulture in California dates back to the eighteenth century when spanish missionaries planted the first grapevines. In the latter half of the twentieth century the profile of California wines grew rapidly, and California wines are now amongst the most respected in the world.

Though the common grapevine has high levels of adaptability, it is also a very particular species of plant that requires a high degree of care. There are many factors that a viticulturist must take into consideration when caring for grapes. Chief among these are:

  • Climate: Climate is the single most important factor in shaping a grape’s flavor and a grape characteristics. Grapes require 1300-1500 hours of sunshine while they are growing and around 27 inches of rainfall. Ideally, most of this rain will come during the winter and spring months. Depending on the climate, viticulturalists must make adjustments to keep light and water within this optimal range.

  • Slope: Slopes and hills are the preferred locations for grape growers. Slopes are valued for their exposure to sunlight and their ability to be drained easily. South facing slopes are preferable in the northern hemisphere as they receive more hours of sunlight. In the southern hemisphere, the reverse is true.

  • Soil: Maintaining quality soil is vital for effective vineyard management. Soil should have good aeration, loose texture, and good drainage. Bad soil can lead to bad fruit development and low yield.

The Hazards of Growing Grapes

Flowering: While a vine is in the flowering phase, it is at its most vulnerable. Cold temperatures and harsh wind can produce clusters of grapes with abnormal sizes and no seeds. Warm temperatures can cause grape flowers to fall off the vine. Viticulturalists must take extra care to protect grapes during this period.

Oidium: Oidium is a mildew that attacks the vine and can be deadly for the plant. Oidium is particularly prevalent during colder periods.

Downy mildew: During warmer periods, viticulturalists need to be on the lookout for downy mildew which stains leaves. This can be treated by spraying plants with copper sulphate.

Fanleaf virus: Fanleaf virus leads to deformities in the grapes and discoloration of the leaves. There is no cure for the virus so viticulturalists must spot the issue quickly and remove the infected plants before it can spread.

Green harvest: Green harvest is when viticulturalists remove bunches of immature green grapes for the purpose of lowering yield. This allows the vine to focus energy and resources on the remaining grapes, producing a lower yield with higher quality grapes.

Viticulture is an exciting profession with a long and rich history. Learning about viticulture is valuable for anyone trying to expand their knowledge of wine and appreciation for winemaking.


The phrase enology, derived from the Greek oînos (wine) and lógos (technological know-how) refers back to the technological know-how committed to the look at and understanding of wines. It additionally researches the cultivation of the vines, the manufacturing of the wine, it is getting older and packaging, its tasting, its intake, and its marketing. Today, Louis Pasteur, having studied the motion of yeast and micro organism in addition to the manner of fermentation, is taken into consideration to be the daddy of medical enology.

Understanding oenology approach bringing the point of interest again to the vine and the unique sorts of current grapes, with a view to then, look at the transformation of the grape into wine.

Even if we were making wine because of the sunrise of time, it's miles due to the fact oenology has proved to be a real artwork shape requiring expert understanding, as every wine area has its personal one-of-a-kind herbal environment. Therefore, what makes this artwork so thrilling is the range of the vineyards, which lets in for the manufacturing of specific and complicated wines.


The name of oenologist, identified in France considering 1955, refers to a person who demonstrates an understanding of approximate wine. The oenologist has numerous roles: from technician to chemist, he's first and important an extraordinary taster who controls, from the grapevine to the table, the diverse tiers of winemaking. That's why this professional wine lover looks after the winemaking, distillation, mixing, and bottling process. Given his obligation for assessing the great of wine, the oenologist needs to have a clinical understanding of the chemical and organic approaches worried withinside the manufacturing of wine. To continue to be a grasp of wine tasting, it's miles crucial that the oenologist continuously improves his nose, palate, and memory.

It is crucial, however, now no longer to confuse the oenologist with the sommelier: even as the previous controls wine manufacturing and advises winemakers, the sommelier talks approximately about wine, advises customers, and is an expert withinside the dealing with and choice of wines.

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